In the previous post I told about the 16 kbps data stream on FM broadcast frequencies, and my suspicion that it's being used by the bus and tram stop display system here in Helsinki. Now it's time to find out the truth.
I had the opportunity to observe a display stuck in the middle of its bootup sequence, displaying a version string. This revealed that the system is called IBus and it's made by the Swedish company Axentia. Sure enough, their website talks about DARC and how it requires no return channel, making it possible to use battery-powered displays in remote areas.
Not much else is said about the system, though; there are no specs for the proprietary protocol. So I implemented the five-layer DARC protocol stack in Perl and was left with a stream of fully error-corrected packets on top of Layer 5, separated into hundreds of subchannels. Some of these contained human-readable ISO-8859-1 strings with names of terminal stations. They seemed like an easy starting point for reverse engineering.
Here's one such packet after dissection:
Each display seems to store in its memory a list of buses that can be expected to pass the stop, along with their destinations in both official languages. The above "bus & destination packets" are used to update the memory. This is done once a day for each display on a narrow-band subchannel, so that updating all the displays takes the whole day. The mapping of the bus stop ID to actual bus stops is not straightforward, and had to be guessed from the lists of buses, on a case-by-case basis.
A different kind of packet updates the remaining waiting time for each bus in minutes. This "minutes packet" is sent three times per minute for every display in the system.
These packets may contain waiting times for several displays using the same subchannel; the "bus & destination packet" contains an address to the correct minutes slot. (The subchannel address is signaled on a lower protocol layer.) A special flag is used to signify an unused slot; another flag indicates that the bus has no working GPS and that the time is an approximation based on timetables. This causes a tilde "~" to appear before the minutes field. This means all calculation is done centrally and the displays only show numbers they hear on the radio.
There's also an announcement packet that's used to sent text messages to the displays. Often these will be about traffic disruptions and diverted routes. It's up to the displays to decide how to display the message; in the low-end battery-powered ones, the actual minutes function is (annoyingly) blanked for the duration of the slowly scrolling message.
I have yet to figure out the meaning of some packet types with non-changing data.
A special subchannel contains test packets with messages such as "Tämä on Mono-Axentia-testiä... Toimiiko tää ees..." and "Määritykset ja tiedotteet tehty vain Monolla - ei mitään IBus:lla" suggesting that they're planning to migrate from IBus to something called Mono. Interestingly, there's also a repeating test message in German – "Bus 61 nach Flughafen aus Haltestelle 1".
What good is it, you ask? Well, who wouldn't want a personal display repeater at home, telling when it's time to go?